Goldenseal Pro Progress- Lists (Jun 13)

Our new Goldenseal Pro accounting software is moving into the home stretch. Everything big is done, but there are still plenty of medium and small things to finish.

Right now, our staff is working on lists. Goldenseal includes about 70 of them. They handle all sorts of little details: job cost categories, payroll tax tables, sales tax rates, etc.

In general, lists are simpler than regular business records. Some are  just a name, and the others have only a few fields. Because of their simplicity, lists were the first things we worked on, back in 2016 when we first started the conversion to Cocoa (on Macintosh) and MFC (on Windows). Since then, the rest of the software interface has gotten ahead of the lists, so it’s time to catch up.

The current version of Goldenseal has lists scattered all over the place. Most are in submenus, under 12 different menu commands. It’s not always easy to find them. Originally, we planned to just duplicate the interface in our current accounting and estimating software. However, both Windows and Mac are moving away from top-bar menus, and putting controls inside the window instead. So, Goldenseal Pro still does the same stuff, but in just one window rather than many.

Goldenseal Pro already uses an outline view for navigation (similar to how you can organize your desktop files). With it, you can find accounts and business transactions more easily. We just put the lists there too. Now they are located near the business transactions that use them.

Back in 2016, the database code was still primitive. The list interface we wrote back then could show list records, but it didn’t make new ones, or save changes. Now that works, also. All that’s left are a few list quirks that need special treatment.

Dennis Kolva
Programming Director



Goldenseal Pro Progress (June 1)

There is a decades-old programmer’s joke that goes:

There are two hard things in computer programming: cache invalidation, naming things, and off-by-one errors.

This week the database code for our new accounting software finally started to work properly for very large files. It took almost a month, or twice as long as expected. Along the way we faced both of those three types of problems.

A cache is data in temporary storage, so it’s quicker to access.  Invalidation is just programmer talk for keeping the cache synchronized with the original data. Basically, the cache determines how long we keep accounting records stored in RAM, and when we save back to disk.

Our staff wrote the caching system for Goldenseal Pro almost 2 years ago. It worked great with small files. Then we started testing with our own company file, which is big enough to require six ‘sector managers’ to manage record locations. Anything put into the extras would eventually give errors. After dozens of debugger runs, it narrowed down to the cache system. Changes weren’t being saved.

Meanwhile, naming things is a chronic issue for all computer programmers. Poor naming is the main reason why code becomes impossible-to-understand ‘black boxes’. Good code tells a story, and explains exactly what it’s doing at every step. Getting it that way takes time and effort.

It wasn’t obvious why the cache system wasn’t saving sectors. Stepping through it, everything seemed OK. After a couple frustrating days of debugging, our staff rewrote the whole thing.  Same basic approach and almost identical code, but with names that made more sense.  Renaming everything was a good way to see how the cache interacted with other parts of the software. Finally, it became clear that sectors were indexed differently from everything else. After changing one line of code, it worked fine again. One minute to fix it, and three days to find it.

Then there are the off by one errors, sometimes called ‘off by on’. For anything involving numbers, it’s easy to get close but no cigar. It doesn’t help that there are math quirks. For example, the end of a record is at start+length-1, not start+length. It’s easy to forget that. Even worse, libraries written by true programmer nerds start counting at zero, while those written by mortals start at one. NeoAccess considered the file end to be the last byte of data, while C++ libraries put ‘end of file’ at one after the last byte. Etcetera.

Earlier this week, our TurtleSoft file was converting OK, but the file size was over 43 gigabytes. Obviously, a gap-finding problem. It took most of a day to track it down to code that called ResetToEnd on a list, thinking that it selected the last item. Nope, it was one past the last item. That name makes sense if you want to add something at the end, but not if you want to access the item at the end. Off by one.

Adding a ResetToLastItem function solved the problem, and file size dropped instantly by 800x.

Anyhow, we’re back to interface programming.

Dennis Kolva
Programming Director


Goldenseal Pro Progress- Black Boxes (May 25)

Remodelers rarely build kitchen appliances from scratch. Store-bought models run better than anything you could ever cob up on your own.

The same thing applies to software apps. It’s hard enough to write code that does construction estimating and accounting. There’s no sense reinventing wheels, so we use libraries written by other people for most of the basics. 

The good news is that there are plenty of software libraries out there. They’ll do just about anything. Most of them are free or cheap.

The bad news is that they are free or cheap. There is little incentive for their developers to polish things. It’s very rare to find a library that is fully reliable, well documented, and easy to use. Even if the source code is available, it’s often an ugly mess that someone whipped out on a caffeine high. Subtle bugs and security flaws probably lurk in there, but there’s no way to know for sure.

When you can’t view or fix the interior workings, it’s called a black box. Maybe it uses C++, or magnets, or squirrels.  There’s no way to know for sure. Whatever it is in there, about the best you can do is learn the quirks of the black box, and work around its flaws.

The NeoAccess database was definitely a black box. A dank basement with spiderwebs. For Goldenseal Pro, we considered switching to MySQL or some other database library. However, we soon discovered that most open-source software libraries are also black boxes, and just as ugly inside. Better the toxic danger zone you know, than the one you don’t.

Anyhow, last week our staff finally decided to completely rewrite the cache-management code. The first attempt, adapted from NeoAccess, was just too confusing. Chasing down its bugs was like wack-a-mole.

Basic design was not hard. Getting it to work on new files wasn’t too bad either. Then we went back and tested the conversion from older Goldenseal files to the new format. For a while it felt like this bathroom repair.  The conversion still uses NeoAccess to read the old file, and it was not happy with the changes.

It was time to put on the hazmat suits, climb in there, and update the NeoAccess cache system for a 64-bit world. We only need to run it one last time, but it’s an important one time. Our existing Goldenseal users will want to keep their old accounting data, just as much as we do.

Jiggling the cache system turned up several obscure bugs. It’s possible they weren’t hurting anything, but now that code actually does what it claims to do. After considerable effort, the conversion started working properly again. Previous testing was giving a few mystery database errors, but most of them disappeared. Sometimes it’s easier to just rebuild stuff, rather than fix it.  That is one problem with black boxes: sometimes the weird stuff you do to work around their flaws becomes its own problem, even after you replace the black box with something better.

We’re still finishing the File Manager code that kicks in when there are more than 32,000 records, but this latest spate of database work is nearing completion. Then we can get back to interface.

Most ‘black box’ libraries were someone’s one-time project, then they moved on to something else. Our software is exactly the opposite. We have been working on the same code base since 1995, and probably will still be working on it in 2035. So, the goal is to make Goldenseal Pro the opposite of a black box!

Dennis Kolva
Programming Director




Goldenseal Pro- File Manager (May 17)

There are many ways for a database to go bad. Losing records is a big problem, of course. Even worse is when one record writes over the top of another one. That corrupts at least one record. Sometimes the damage expands further.

A more subtle problem happens when records change: something that happens often in accounting and estimating software. Usually records get bigger, which means they no longer fit into their old place. It’s easiest to move them to the end of the file, but then there’s a gap at their former location. Do that enough times, and you end up with a huge file that is mostly empty space.

The NeoAccess database kept a ‘free list’ of empty spaces that was meant to prevent both those problems. New and changed records filled in the gaps, and kept the file compact.  However, there were occasional mystery bugs, and we suspected the free list was at fault.  If it ever forgot to remove a gap, then a record would be trashed when a second was written to the same place. We tried to debug the free list code but it was too confusing.

In 2002, we added the File Manager to help manage file contents. It kept its own list of gaps that duplicated the free list, and also stored the location of every record in the file.  That way there were two ways to make sure records were added safely. Goldenseal could find a gap, then double-check the neighborhood to make sure the space was really free.

At first the File Manager was just a diagnostic tool, but it soon replaced the old free list. Mystery over-write bugs disappeared. The Manager added an extra 10 bytes per record, but increased reliability was well worth the cost.

Unfortunately, the File Manager had a subtle flaw. It was by far the biggest record in the database (in the TurtleSoft file, it’s 2.5 megabytes).  If users were low on RAM, it was the first thing that wouldn’t fit. Nearly always, that led to a crash or a freeze, but the database would still be fine. However, if there was exactly enough RAM to load the Manager, but not enough to save it, it would die midway through the file save, and corrupt the database. It didn’t happen often but it was awful when it did.

Goldenseal users haven’t reported this problem in the past few years, probably because computers now have so many gigabytes of RAM. However, it’s still a design flaw.

In Goldenseal Pro we fix it by using multiple, smaller File Managers. There’s one for each sector in the file, enough to hold 32,000 records. Managers are accessed via a very broad, 2-level tree that is similar to the ones used to index records. It’s safer and a teeny bit faster than the old system, with less data to read from the drive.

The old File Manager kept growing larger as more records were added. Periodically, it had to be relocated in the file. That was when it was most likely to die, and kill the file with it.  In Goldenseal Pro, each File Manager is a fixed size. When it fills, we just add another one. That also makes it safer.

Essentially, Goldenseal Pro stores the location of every record in two different places: one sorted by record ID, and one sorted by location in the file. There’s also a separate list of file gaps that helps keep the file compact. The system is more complicated than the previous File Manager, but not by much. The code is much more understandable, so we’ll be able to repair damage to either half of the record storage.

Right now, the system can handle a billion records. If any users ever get close to that amount, we’ll add code to allow a 3-level tree. That will jump it into the trillions.

Dennis Kolva
Programming Director


Memory & Speed (May 10)

When our staff first started work on Goldenseal accounting software, computers had 1 to 4 megabytes of RAM. That was sparse. Programmers had to work hard to conserve memory. It’s probably why the NeoAccess database library used such a skinny tree to locate records on disk. It only consumed 9 or 10 bytes per record.

Back then, processors ran at 16 to 32 megahertz. Speed was another big concern. We originally chose the NeoAccess database because it was fast, thanks to record caching.  A cache means that each record sticks around in RAM for a while, after it is opened. Reading data in RAM is many times faster than the hard drive, so a cache saves time for anything used more than once. Of course, there is only so much room in RAM, so a cache must be managed carefully. Our programmers thought hard about when to write records to disk, and when to remove items from the cache.

These days, computers have gigabytes of RAM (a thousand times more than the 90s). Processors run at a few gigahertz (a hundred times faster). Programmers can spend less time worrying about memory and clock cycles. They can focus more on reliability and maintainability.

Our staff has been using the Sample Company File for testing since late 2016. It’s a small file. A few weeks ago we converted our own TurtleSoft file to the new format, in prep for using it daily. With 10,000s of records instead of 100s, it’s a chance to stress-test and fine-tune the database code.

NeoAccess had only one way to locate a record on disk: climb through the index tree, and find its ID and file mark (4 bytes each). It was fast, and saved memory. Unfortunately, if any bits were damaged along the way, the record was lost forever (or read from the wrong part of the file, producing garbage).  In 2002 we added a File Manager to store record addresses in a second place. It definitely reduced database errors. Unfortunately, it had its own flaws, and never quite lived up to its potential. More about that next week.

As mentioned a couple weeks ago, Goldenseal Pro is more ‘webby’, with extra links, and ways to recover damaged data. To make that happen, it now uses about 80 bytes for each record location, instead of 10. We may even add more. The extra links, padding and redundancy make Goldenseal Pro files about triple the size. However, they are still a tiny fraction of a modern terabyte drive. For a few extra cents of drive space, it’s well worth the increase in reliability.

For speed, Goldenseal Pro still uses a record cache. However, it needed a complete rewrite. The old NeoAccess code worked OK, but it was very hard to understand and debug. Their cache also relied on their indexing system, which we’ve replaced. Back in 2002 we added code to help with cache diagnostics. It has been running in parallel for 16 years, and now it takes over completely.

Managing the cache is tricky. Some records are used more than once, so the cache needs ‘reference counts’ to keep them open until everything is finished.  Mess up the count, and the program will crash (if the record is removed prematurely) or leak memory (if never removed). Memory leaks don’t cause immediate problems, but eventually they use up all available RAM and crash. Even worse, memory leaks cause a crash at some random later time, which makes them hard to debug.

Working on database code is probably the hardest possible programming. It’s complicated.  Fortunately, there also is plenty of smaller stuff to work on, when programmer brain cells are not cranked up to 11.

Dennis Kolva
Programming Director


Goldenseal Pro Progress- Back to Databasics (May 3)

Back in 1999, we started using real data to test beta versions of Goldenseal accounting software. There was an unpleasant surprise. Intermittently, the software gave mystery NeoAccess errors, then crashed with a corrupted database. The only recourse was to trash the file and start over. We reported the bugs to NeoAccess support, but by then they had stopped answering emails.

We considered switching to a different database library, but couldn’t find anything better. Out of desperation, our staff spent half a year rewriting the NeoAccess code to make it more reliable. We found and fixed at least two serious bugs. Most likely, the rewrites accidentally fixed a few more. After that, the code ran well enough for a version 1.0 release.

The database still had rare problems, so we added a bunch of diagnostic commands to better understand what was happening inside the file. With their help, we tracked down a few more subtle bugs, and squashed the last of them in 2004.

Now that we are testing Goldenseal Pro with our own real data, we’re seeing database bugs again. The software adds many thousands of records just fine, but sometimes it has failed after deleting or changing them. This time around, bugs are entirely expected, since it’s brand new code getting its first stress test. The schedule has 2 weeks allocated for database bug fixes, and so far that seems about right.

Fortunately, the new database code is much cleaner and more understandable. Bug fixes usually take hours instead of months.

Up until now, we have been able to step through the database code in the debugger to find and fix problems. However, as the amount of data increases, the bugs grow more obscure (and harder to duplicate). So, we just added some diagnostic commands again. Being able to see interior details helped catch the deletion bug. Right now Goldenseal Pro is working fine, although there are almost certainly more bugs lurking.

You might wonder why we don’t just write bug-free code to start with. And yeah, we agree, that would sure be nice. Having perfect code in the first run would save everyone a lot of time.

What prevents that is the same reason that construction projects have punch lists. Why first drafts have tyops and bad grammar. Why cars aren’t perfect, even after 130 years of engineering. Complex things are difficult, and creators can’t anticipate every possible problem. Frequently, errors need to occur at least once, before you even know they’re a problem. Not to mention, just plain old random omissions and mistakes.

Since we can’t write perfect code, we spend a lot of time testing and debugging. The software gets closer and closer to perfect.

Right now Goldenseal Pro is in that rough polishing stage. Polishing is a slow, grinding process that takes time before it produces something shiny.

Dennis Kolva
Programming Director


Trees vs Webs (Apr 26)

Goldenseal currently manages its accounting data with NeoAccess (a popular object database library in the 1990s). To locate records, it uses a binary tree.

You may have used binary search while looking for something in an old-fashioned paper phone book or dictionary. Open at the middle, and compare it to what you want. Go left or right depending, then open the middle of that half. Repeat with smaller and smaller divisions until you get to the right page.

Binary search is very efficient, especially when the data is huge. It takes 10 steps to cover a thousand items, 20 steps for a million, 30 for a billion, and so on.

It’s easy to set up a binary search in sorted items of identical size. However, that is rarely the case for database records. For those, it’s hard to find the middle, so they are better managed with a binary tree. The tree has a single root, which grows increasingly ‘branchy’ as you go up. To find something you start at the bottom, compare at each node, then move up through the tree. Eventually you arrive at a leaf node, which links to the actual record. This kind of navigational tree is also called an index.

NeoAccess was optimized for speed and small size. Each node included a list of file addresses for its children, and nothing more. Sparseness made sense, back when memory was expensive and processors were slow.

Unfortunately, a lean index is also very fragile. If a NeoAccess node is corrupted, everything above it becomes invisible. Those records are still on the hard drive, but they lack a path that says where they are. NeoAccess had no alternate route. Any damage was fatal.

These days, memory is cheap and processors are very fast. As a result, it’s nearly always better to build software for reliability rather than speed. Probably the best example for bullet-proof design is the Internet. It began as Arpanet, which was meant to keep running even after nuclear annihilation. Turns out, that kind of sturdiness helps, even in a world of small, normal, ordinary snafus.

Instead of a tree, the Internet is a web. Lots of connections from here to there. There is always a way to find something, even if one path breaks. Cell towers work the same way.

Goldenseal Pro still use a tree structure for normal finds. But it also includes more web-like connections and alternate routes. With their help, it should be able to rescue records, even if a tree branch is damaged. The accounting database can even be self-repairing.

Meanwhile, we still need to use the old NeoAccess code to read data from the current Goldenseal accounting software, so it can move into the new Pro format. Unfortunately, the Sales breakdowns in our TurtleSoft data have some corrupted index nodes. More than half can’t be found. Without them, we won’t know what people bought.

Fortunately, coming to the rescue is the File Manager, which we added to NeoAccess in 2002. Its main function is to prevent records from overwriting each other, but it also provides an alternate way to find record locations on the disk. We just added some code to it, so it can read and recover lost records when the tree can’t find them. Voilà, it rescued our missing data! The new code will also help any other users with damaged trees.

There is a cost for the extra connections, webbishness and redundancy. Our old TurtleSoft company file was 51 megabytes, and the new one weighs in at 127. It will probably grow even larger, as we add more safety features.

3x the file size for 3x the reliability seems a worthy trade.

Dennis Kolva
Programming Director



Goldenseal Pro Progress Report (Apr 19)

Up until now, our staff has been using the Sample Company File to test Goldenseal Pro (our new, updated accounting and estimating software). The sample file has fake data for a fake company. It was first set up in 1997 to test pre-alpha versions of Goldenseal. Having existing records makes it easier to run accounting commands, and make sure everything works properly.

When you open an older-format file with Goldenseal Pro, it first creates a new file in the new format. Then it reads each record from the old file, and copies it to the new one.

The work on Goldenseal Pro is almost far enough along to start using it for our own business. To get ready for that, we currently are working on the conversion, to get TurtleSoft’s accounting file into the new Goldenseal Pro format.

When a software company uses its own software for daily use, it’s called “eating your own dog food”. It does produce better software, since any problems are right there in your face. On the other hand, it also means that corrupted data can creep in, from using the accounting software in real life before it is fully debugged. Because of that accumulated cruft, converting our own file gives errors. Most of this week, we have been running the conversion until it complains, then stepping through to find out what’s wrong. Fix that problem, and move to the next.

Right now we are still working on a tough one. Since about 2002, our file has suffered from a corrupted NeoAccess index for sales breakdowns. Try to look at them, and Goldenseal crashes. The bad data may have been caused by “bit rot”, or it may have been from some NeoAccess bug that was fixed long ago.

Fortunately, the corruption only affects a few records from the 1990s, so it doesn’t bother us in daily use. Unfortunately, the conversion goes there when it moves records to the new file. So, we need to get past the corrupted index. Ideally, we should fix it in a way that handles any other data corruption that may be present in other users’ files. That means stepping through NeoAccess code many times, and trying out small changes. Right now it no longer crashes, but it still skips all the sale breakdowns that are after the bad index. We need those.

The NeoAccess database structure has many places where changing a single bit wreaks havoc. That’s a big flaw, because there are things like cosmic rays and radioactive decay that sometimes change a 1 to a 0. “Bit rot” is rare (and getting rarer as technology improves), but it still happens.

In this case, each index in the tree has a list of file addresses that point to its branches. If any of those change by accident, they’ll read from the wrong part of the disk and get garbage. It’s all downhill from there.

Goldenseal Pro already stores addresses in two different places, but the headache of trying to fix NeoAccess code made us decide to store each file address a 3rd time. It adds 8 bytes per record, but then we can compare two numbers at every read, and give a warning if different. After that, the code can look at both locations, and see which one makes sense.

The conversion from Goldenseal to Goldenseal Pro already futzes with a few things: converting bank accounts, merging breakdown classes, switching to 64-bit, and adding more safety tags to the data. As corrupted data turns up in our file, we add a fixer routine in the conversion code. It might as well tidy up along the way, in case other users have similar damage.

There will be a few weeks or a month when we run TurtleSoft from two company files: one in Goldenseal, and in Goldenseal Pro. We’ll taste the dog food as an appetizer, but still eat human food for the main course. That will be the perfect time for current Goldenseal users to run the conversion on their own data. If any new problems turn up, we’ll have plenty of time to fix them before the final release.

Dennis Kolva
Programming Director

Goldenseal Pro Progress Report (Apr 12)

Goldenseal Pro accounting software is now in the testing and completion phase. The interface is mostly set up, but there are many small details left to finish. Basically, our staff tries everything with the Sample Company File until it gives an error message or doesn’t work right. We fix it, and repeat. Most of our time will be spent doing that, from now until the final release.

For construction projects, there’s usually a “punch list” phase near the end. It starts with a site inspection, where you/the client/the architect writes up a list of problems to fix. Then, you fix them and take them off the list. Software is harder to inspect, so its development goes differently. Right now it’s more like checking each wall in a remodeling project, to see if everything is trimmed and painted. If not, time to finish it.

Some problems take a few minutes to solve, while others take hours. Rarely they take days, if the code needs serious refactoring or rewriting. The fixes probably average out to 3o minutes or an hour apiece. As a wild guess, there may be 500 or 1000 little details still to finish. Multiplying a guess by a guess gives a total that is about what the estimating spreadsheet says (it predicts completion in October).

As we update Goldenseal’s code, we are finding many places where it jumps through hoops in order to conserve memory, or give results a bit faster. Goldenseal was originally built for machines with 4 megabytes of RAM, and processors in the 16 megahertz range. It took some effort to get good performance with that hardware.

Modern computer have 1000x the RAM capacity and 100x faster processors. That means we can rewrite some things to have simpler code, and still perform well. Simpler code means easier maintenance, and less chance of mystery bugs. When a chunk of code needs rewriting anyhow to fit in with Cocoa, we refactor it now. Some things get flagged for later.  Sometimes it’s a judgement call between “if it ain’t broke don’t fix it”, and “do it right”.

At the moment, our staff is still working on bank transactions, but they are almost done. Goldenseal Pro has one little improvement: you can now have transactions for multiple bank accounts open at the same time, and switch between them easily. It actually makes the code simpler than our current approach of closing the window, and then reopening it with a different account.

Dennis Kolva
Programming Director



Goldenseal Pro Progress Report- Banking (Apr 3)

Goldenseal accounting software includes action commands to help run your business: Pay Bills, Write Payroll, Deposit Funds, Project/Sales Billing, Job Costing and Reconcile. They present a window with a list of items in a table. Click buttons to do stuff.  If you double-click, most show another window with more details for that item.

The PowerPlant framework that we used to build Goldenseal did not have a table class, so we had to manage and draw the action command tables with our own code. For various reasons, those tables were particularly hard to set up, and hard to maintain. Replacing them has been on the to-do list for a long time.  The action commands (and their tables) are the largest remaining task for Goldenseal Pro, so we started on them last week.

Fortunately, Apple’s Cocoa framework does have a table class. It also has an Interface Builder tool to create windows. It only took a few hours to use it, and set up the Reconcile window and its table. The same approach will work for all the action commands, and it ought to be much easier to maintain.

To test the Reconcile window, we need working bank transactions. That means finishing a design change that we started last year.

Goldenseal accounting software currently has seven types of bank accounts: Cash, Checking, Savings, Investments, Credit Cards, Loans and Escrows. They each have their own menu commands and windows. However, in the years since we first designed Goldenseal, deregulation happened. The former, strictly defined differences between commercial banks, savings banks, savings & loans and credit unions are long gone. These days, you might write checks or use a debit/credit card from almost any type of bank account, or even use bank-ish entities such as PayPal or Apple Pay. The distinctions have blurred.

It still makes sense to treat Investments separately (because they can be non-monetary, and may have job costs). Ditto for Escrows (because it’s not your money).  The others really aren’t that different any more, so we are merging cash, checking, savings, credit cards and loans into just plain Bank Accounts. They’ll have a popup field so you can still group them by type, but otherwise they’ll all look the same. It will make cash-basis accounting much simpler.

For bank transactions, Goldenseal currently has 5 different screen layouts (checks, payments, deposits, transfers out and transfers in). Switching between them is very complicated code, so we also plan to merge those into a single layout.

For new users, setting up the new bank account system was easy. For existing users, we need to handle many years of data that was entered from the old system. To preserve it, the update process automatically moves bank accounts and transactions from old format to new. It also goes through purchases and other transactions, and converts their links to the new payment and deposit accounts. The code for that was written last summer, but it needs real data before it can be tested. That’s one reason why we are so eager to start using Goldenseal Pro to run TurtleSoft.

Dennis Kolva
Programming Director